Drawing and some art design. These are pages from a cloth and illustration book I made for a little boy, composed of things he likes.
I drew the pictures in black pen, colored them in with pencils, and laminated them with clear packing tape. Then, I cut out each drawing and adhered it to a cloth page with rubber cement and an edging of fabric paint. The lettering is all done with fabric paint, too.
The sketches did involve research. If you Google “smiling golden retrievers” you will pull up pages of loopy looking photos of exactly that.